The Xian JH-7, commonly known as Flounder, is a twin-engine fighter-bomber aircraft developed by the People’s Republic of China. It is designed to perform a variety of roles, including ground attack, anti-ship, and electronic warfare. The JH-7 has been in service with the People’s Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF) since the early 1990s and has been upgraded several times over the years to enhance its capabilities.

Origin and History

The Xian JH-7, also known as the FBC-1 (Fighter/Bomber China-1), is a twin-engine, two-seat fighter-bomber aircraft developed by China’s Xian Aircraft Corporation. The JH-7 program was initiated in the 1970s as part of China’s efforts to modernize its air force and replace its aging fleet of fighter-bombers. The program was a joint effort between China and Pakistan, with the latter providing technical assistance and expertise in aircraft design.

The first JH-7 prototype flew in 1988, and the aircraft entered service with the People’s Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF) in the early 1990s. The JH-7 has undergone several upgrades and modifications since its introduction, including the addition of advanced avionics and weapons systems. The aircraft entered service with the PLAAF in 1992, and over the years, several upgrades and improvements have been made to the design to improve its performance and capabilities.


To further elaborate, the Xian JH-7 (Flounder) features a low-mounted delta wing design with a slight sweepback angle. The wing also has leading-edge root extensions (LERX) that enhance the aircraft’s maneuverability at high angles of attack. The engines are two Liyang (LMC) WP-7B afterburning turbofans, each capable of producing up to 60 kN of thrust. The engines are mounted in separate nacelles, which are located on either side of the fuselage.

The JH-7’s airframe is constructed primarily of lightweight aluminum alloys and composite materials. The aircraft’s nose is long and tapered, housing the radar and targeting systems, while the cockpit is located above the air intake in the fuselage. The canopy provides a high degree of visibility, which is essential for ground attack missions. The JH-7’s flight controls are fly-by-wire, allowing for precise control of the aircraft’s movements. The advanced avionics and flight controls make the JH-7 a highly capable aircraft in combat scenarios.

Xian JH-7 (Flounder)

Power and Performance

The JH-7’s power and performance are significant factors in its success as a fighter-bomber aircraft. Its two Liyang Woshan WS-9 turbofan engines provide it with a total thrust of 32,000 pounds, which is sufficient to propel the aircraft to a maximum speed of Mach 1.75 (1,346 mph). The engines also give the JH-7 a range of 1,200 nautical miles, making it suitable for long-range missions.

In terms of performance, the JH-7 can carry a maximum payload of 8,800 pounds and has a service ceiling of 55,000 feet. Its performance characteristics are comparable to other fighter-bombers such as the F-111 Aardvark and the Su-24 Fencer. However, the JH-7 is considered more advanced than these aircraft due to its modern avionics and weapon systems.

The JH-7’s delta wing design and lightweight construction also contribute to its high levels of maneuverability. The aircraft is capable of performing complex aerial maneuvers and has the ability to fly at high angles of attack. These features make the JH-7 a versatile and highly effective aircraft for a variety of missions, including air-to-ground attacks, anti-shipping operations, and reconnaissance.


The Xian JH-7 Flounder is equipped with an array of air-to-ground and air-to-ship weapons, making it a versatile and potent fighter-bomber. Its primary armament includes the YJ-83 anti-ship missile, which is a long-range, sea-skimming missile designed to take out enemy ships. Additionally, the aircraft is equipped with the LT-2 laser-guided bomb, which provides precision targeting capability for ground attack missions. The JH-7 can also carry a variety of unguided bombs, rockets, and missiles, including the C-802A anti-ship missile and the YJ-12 supersonic anti-ship missile.

In addition to its air-to-ground capabilities, the JH-7 can also engage in air-to-air combat. It is equipped with a 23mm twin-barrel cannon for close-range engagements with enemy aircraft. The aircraft is also capable of carrying the PL-12 medium-range air-to-air missile, which is designed to engage enemy aircraft at ranges of up to 50 miles.

The JH-7’s weapons systems are integrated with its advanced avionics, including a helmet-mounted display (HMD) and a radar warning receiver (RWR), which provide the pilot with enhanced situational awareness and allow for precision targeting. The JH-7’s sophisticated weapons systems make it a highly effective fighter-bomber, capable of engaging a wide range of targets with precision and accuracy.

Military Use and Combat History

The JH-7 has been a vital component of the People’s Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF) since its introduction. It is primarily used for ground attack and anti-ship missions and has been involved in various conflicts, including the 1996 Taiwan Strait Crisis and the bombing of the Chinese embassy in Belgrade. During the Taiwan Strait Crisis, the JH-7 played a key role in China’s strategy of intimidating Taiwan by flying missions near its airspace.

The JH-7’s versatility has made it a valuable asset to the PLAAF. It has also been used for electronic warfare missions, including jamming and intelligence gathering. Its advanced avionics and flight controls make it an effective platform for these missions.

The JH-7’s combat effectiveness was demonstrated during the 1999 NATO bombing campaign in Yugoslavia. During this campaign, NATO forces bombed the Chinese embassy in Belgrade, which they mistook for a military target. The JH-7 was used to retaliate against NATO by flying close to the US aircraft carrier USS Kitty Hawk in the Adriatic Sea. This incident highlighted the JH-7’s capability to carry out anti-ship missions and its importance in China’s military strategy.

The JH-7’s combat record has made it a valuable asset to the PLAAF’s arsenal. It has undergone several upgrades to improve its capabilities, including the addition of more advanced avionics, weapons systems, and engines. These upgrades have helped to ensure that the JH-7 remains a capable and effective aircraft in China’s military operations.

Back to Modern fighter jets

We organise fighter jet experiences. Get in touch for more information.